In the disease of endometriosis, endometrial tissue grows outside the uterus, usually in the peritoneal cavity. Rodent models of endometriosis allow a way to reproduce the disease, evaluate effects of chemicals, and study mechanisms. Twenty-one days prior to induction surgery which produces endometriosis, female Sprague–Dawley rats and B6C3F1 mice were pretreated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at 0, 3 or 10 μg TCDD/kg. Animals were treated again at the time of surgery and at 3, 6, and 9 weeks following surgery. Evaluations were made at 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks postsurgery. TCDD produced a dose-dependent increase in endometriotic site diameter when all time points were pooled within each dose in rats and a dramatic increase in site diameter in mice at 9 and 12 weeks.